ZIKLAG (Heb. צִקְלַג), town apportioned to the tribe of Simeon along with Hormah and Beth-Marcaboth (Josh. 19:5). It was later included in Judah where it was part of the first district, again with Hormah (Josh. 15:31). According to I Samuel 27:6, it was given to David, then a refugee from the persecution of Saul, by Achish, the Philistine ruler of Gath; therefore, at that time, it must have been within the orbit of Philistine power. lt was David's base till the time of the battle of Gilboa; after he was sent away from Aphek by the Philistines, he found the city burned by the Amalekites, whom he pursued and destroyed (I Sam. 30). From Ziklag David sent the spoils from this battle to various cities in Judah and there he heard, on the third day after his return, the grievous news of the fall of Saul and Jonathan; after slaying the messenger, he made his famous lament there (II Sam. 1:17ff.). David was joined in Ziklag by his "mighty men" (I Chron. 12:1ff.) and from the city he went to claim the kingship of Judah. It was one of the places inhabited by Jews after the return from the Babylonian exile (Neh. 11:28). Eusebius locates the place in the Daromas (Onom. 156: 11). Most scholars, following A. Alt, have identified Ziklag with Tell al-Ḥuwaylifa, a prominent tell 20 mi. (32 km.) southwest of Hebron, in a pass on the fringe of the Judean mountains; as this site does not seem to fall within the area of Philistine domination, however, press and aharoni have suggested Tell al-Shari ʿ a further to the west, which others have identified with Gerar. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alt, in: JPOS, 15 (1935), 317ff.; Press, Ereẓ, 4 (1955), 806f.; Aharoni, Land, index. (Michael Avi-Yonah)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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